There are 168 known families and 28 bond groups in the Tsavo Elephant Database. A family is an adult female with her immature offspring (kinship confirmed). A bond group is two or more of these families, frequently together, in close proximity and involved in the same activity with coordinated movements (kinship unknown). Many of these families have been known for 15 to 20 years. Tsavo families aggregate and are often with bulls during both the dry and rainy seasons.
ELDORA was first identified in March1990 with two offspring: one female (Skye) and one male calf. At that time her right tusk was broken. By 2003 the broken tusk had grown and now her tusks are long and crossed (background). Since 1998 she’s had two male calves. Skye (splayed tusks) has three female offspring. Eldora’s family and Tessa’s tuskless family are a bond group. Newly independent males are often with Eldora’s family.
HOLDA was first identified in April 1991 with two offspring: one male and one female calf. She broke her left tusk in 2006. Now in 2015 the tusks are the same length. Her distinct feature is a large hole in the lower middle of her left ear. Since 1995 she’s had one male and three female calves. Holda’s family and Hazel’s family are a bond group. But Holda’s family is also often alone.
CHRYSTAL was first identified in July 1990 with one male offspring. Her distinct features are a single left tusk crossed over her trunk and a small hole in the lower part of her left ear. Since 1991 she’s had two female and two male calves. Chrystal’s family and CT‘s tuskless family are a bond group.
SAVANNA was first identified in August 1993 with two female offspring. Her distinct features are two notches in the top of her right ear and a small hole in her lower right ear. Since 2002 she’s had three female calves. Savanna’s family and Summer’s family are a bond group. In 2014, both females had a female calf within two weeks of each other.
ONE-TUSKER was first identified in July 1989 with one male offspring. Her distinct features are a single right tusk and a small hole in her left ear. Since 1990 she’s had two males and two female calves. One-Tusker’s family and Cypris’s family are a bond group.
NOLA was first identified in May 1990 with one female offspring. Her distinct features are a large hole in her right ear, close to her jaw, and no hair on her tail. Since 1992 she’s had two female and two male calves. Nola’s family and Helma’s family are a bond group.